By Products Critical Raw Materials Mineral Processing Technology Mining Raw Materials Sustainable Ionometallurgy

Proceedings ION4RAW final workshop: Exploring Raw Material Insights and Industrial Prospects

Article written by Ioana Pristavu | PNO Innovation

On 30 November 2023, the ION4RAW project organised its final event – “Exploring Raw Material Insights and Industrial Prospects”, which marked a pivotal moment as it opened its exploitation event to the public. Introduced by Nader Akil (Operations manager at PNO Innovation Belgium) and Maria Tripiana Serrano (Division Manager in the Chemical department at IDENER and coordinator of the ION4RAW project), the event focused on two objectives. Firstly, it aimed to present the outcomes and the findings derived from the extensive research work carried out in the framework of the project. Secondly, the event facilitated in depth discussions on the perspectives and challenges associated with the application of Deep eutectic solvents (DES) in Metallurgy.

Following the coordinator’s introduction, which outlined the main objective of ION4RAW – to develop a new energy- and material-efficient mineral processing technology to recover by-products from primary sources by means of innovative Deep Eutectic Solvents (DES) ionic liquids and advanced electro-recovery using a one-reactor system, the event dived into the technical presentations providing a comprehensive overview of ionometallurgical process development, and an outline of the upscaled process.

Outcomes of the ION4RAW project


Ainhoa Unzurrunzaga, researcher at TECNALIA (Spain) explained the main objective of collaborative research focused on investigating and fine tuning of the leaching, the separation and the purification processes to selectively recover targeted metals [silver (Ag), tellurium (Te), cobalt (Co), selenium (Se), indium (In), antimony (Sb) or bismuth (Bi)] using ionometallurgical processes. The process development was divided in specific tasks, from the mineralogical characterisation of the product materials, to assessing dissolution behaviour and kinetics in DES, establishing the solution speciation and effects on contaminants, and finally exploring various recovery methodologies.

Ainhoa outlined the main characteristics of DES and their advantages in comparison to conventional metallurgical processes, mentioning here reduced resources usage (energy, water), rapid preparation, availability of commercial precursors, electrochemical stability, and often lower toxicity. The various types of DES prepared by TECNALIA were based on choline chloride, mixing with different hydrogen bond donors (HBD). Their research involved nine materials (in the form of sulphide concentrates rich in Cu, Pb, Zn, Au and Ag) sourced from five different mines.

The research team at TECNALIA tested various DES with diverse chemistries and with diverse ores, focusing their presentation on the results obtained with concentrate extracted from Peru’s El Porvenir mine. With this ore, apart from different DES chemistries, researchers studied the addition of an additive and oxidant and the effect of the DES/solid ratio, amongst other parameters. Their findings revealed that the composition of DES, along with other parameters, significantly influence metal dissolution. Adding an oxidant and an additive improved the recovery rates, but simultaneously rendered the extraction process less selective. This conclusion opened further investigations into adjusting different parameters, such as the quantity of additives.

The DES-system displaying the most promising balance between recovery and target metals concentration, and showing low amount of main metals and suitability for subsequent electrowinning process, was later optimised. Under the most suitable operating conditions, researchers reported the following recovery rates: over 81% Ag and Te, 97% Bi, around 30% Sb and In.

Electrochemical recovery

During the ION4RAW exploitation event, Gøril Jahrsengene, Research Scientist at SINTEF (Norway), explained the electrowinning process using DES with dissolved metals post-leaching. The objective lay in determining the electrochemical stability window by identifying the range of electroactive species and redox behaviour occurring during the process. Researchers established the process limitations, mainly contingent on the oxidation state in DES, the presence of numerous metals with different concentrations, and the anode reaction, ensuring the solvent can be further recycled. Initial leaching experiments conducted at TECNALIA’s premises at small scale, followed by small scale electrolysis experiments conducted at SINTEF’s facilities at 60 °C, aimed to improve the electrochemistry. The results showed high concentrations of Ag ad Bi in the produced metal at this scale.

Upscaling experiments using 1 kg of concentrate (pre-leaching) aimed to obtain a Ag-Sb-Bi-Te alloy with small contribution of Cu, and no Pb, after electrowinning. Researchers improved the current efficiency from 30-40% to 50-55% while maintaining similar levels of metal depletion, by optimising the leaching conditions. The resulting alloy contained high amounts of Bi (~ 50-60%) in contrast to other metals (around 20% Ag, 5% Sb, 3% Te, 5-20% Cu), with minimal lead detected (2% Pb).

Looking at the opportunities window, researchers concluded that batch electrolysis using this specific concentrate could yield metal alloys with more than 80% of target elements (Ag, Sb, Bi, Te) along with traces of Cu. This significant improvement indicated the potential to produce metal alloys with relatively high concentrations of target metals from low initial concentrations present in metal sulphide ores. Further altering the current density, researchers produced additional alloys with higher Ag concentrations compared to Bi.

Moreover, different ores may yield different combinations of metals and DES concentrations after leaching. Understanding the electrochemical reactions for the relevant metals enables replication across other systems. Gøril outlined several optimisation scenarios with potential to produce single metal or simpler alloys, highlighting a pool of opportunities for future research initiatives.

Chemical recovery and residual solid valorisation

Cristina Salazar Castro, chemist at LUREDERRA (Spain) focused her presentation on the diverse input materials and their varying elemental compositions, particularly highlighting the outputs extracted from Peru’s El Porvenir mine. Cristina described the sequential chemical steps aimed at recovering various target metals like Ag, Te and Bi. The methodology involved initial precipitation steps, followed by a two-step separation process using additional sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to adjust the pH, and a subsequent precipitation step using thiosulfate. This phase facilitated a premature separation of various metals present in the solution, notably Te and Bi. Subsequent rounds of precipitation processes revealed presence of Bi compounds (oxides or hydroxides), but also traces of Cu and Cd.  By describing this multi-step separation chemical process, Cristina emphasised the potential of this complementary route for recovering Ag, Te and Bi.

Additional to the chemical route, LUREDERRA’s focus extended beyond chemical recovery; researchers explored valorising the residual solids obtained post-filtration by repurposing them as concrete fillers. Tests conducted during the revalorisation processes confirmed that all particle ranges can be further exploited in the construction sector, without altering the curing concrete process.

To underscore ION4RAW’s commitment to sustainability and circularity, researchers at LUREDERRA and TU Freiberg have been optimising the solvent’s recyclability by removing the leached metals and reducing the amount of water in the DES.  These conclusions align with ION4RAW’s overarching goals supporting sustainable mining solutions – recovery of valuable elements from secondary sources by chemical routes, solid waste valorisation and DES reuse.

Pilot plant advances and overview of the upscaled process

After introducing the specific objectives of the process upscaling, Laura Sanchez Cupido, researcher at TECNALIA, revisited the main stages of the ION4RAW process development, highlighting the progression from TRL 3 to TRL 5. During this last stage of the project, partners are designing and building the pilot plant, working on the optimisation and validation of leaching and electrochemical recovery process, alongside products characterisation.

The innovative aspect of the ION4RAW project lies in its objective to design a process using one main reactor that could cater to a diversity of streams and could perform both the leaching and the electrowinning processes. Initial pilot-scale leaching tests processed seven batches (24 kg) of the concentrate extracted from Peru’s El Porvenir mine in 180 L of leaching media. Progress in parameter optimisation ensured controlled temperature (around 45°C) and a filtration time up to 15-20 minutes; optimisation of other parameters in the pilot plant set up allowed also a significant reduction of oxidant usage without compromising efficiency. Promising initial results showed satisfactory recovery rates for Ag, Bi and Te.

Anticipating the electrowinning tests, joint efforts of TECNALIA and SINTEF focused firstly on the leachates’ characterisation to identify electrodeposition potentials and current densities. Initial electrowinning trials reported deposits of Ag, Bi, Te, Sb and Cu in ranges similar to the lab scale. Researchers’ work is now focused primarily on optimising the conditions to improve the recovery rates, with a final objective to produce 100 L leachate and electrowinning of target metals at optimum conditions.

Finally, Laura provided an overview of the ION4RAW process outlining the advantages, but also the challenges that research still needs to address to optimise DES application in extractive metallurgy. Pilot scale trials showed various benefits of using DES over conventional processes, including low temperature atmospheric pressure, milder leaching medium for sulphide ores, compatibility with existing components and chemicals, as well as acceptable viscosity levels which allow the use of same equipment and same processing times and losses as when aqueous media are used. Looking at improvement opportunities, certain challenges persist, notably the need to reduce the oxidant and additive quantities and improve the partial selectivity, which is highly dependent on the composition of the raw material.

Assessment of by-product potential in Europe – contribution to the Raw Materials Information System

Last two presentations from the ION4RAW project highlighted activities and results complementary to the process development. Pauline Moreau, project manager at BRGM, briefly introduced the by-product potential evaluation, with a focus on the assessment and inventory of target by-product distribution in existing and currently unexploited resources from Europe. Placed during the initial phases of the project, in charge of the extensive characterisation of the target by-products, this work package has been crucial to the following phases of the project. This extensive sample characterisation, based on multiscale analysis, covered samples from five different ores: Cononish Gold Mine (Scotland), Cobre Las Cruces and El Valle Boinas (Spain), El Porvenir and Cerro Lindo (Peru).

To compile geographically-based data on the occurrence and potential of by-products in Europe, researchers used the ProMine database, classifying data in 17 metallogenic families, described with specific details like location, deposit or economic information. From over 8000 occurrences, only 1400 contained the targeted by-products. To address database heterogeneity and/or information gaps, BRGM employed the DataBase Querying (DBQ) approach, predictively assessing these elements and identifying several prospecting areas for the project’s targeted by-products. According to this meticulous analysis, reports revealed, as an example, that the epithermal deposit type contains six of the by-products targeted by ION4RAW: Sb, Bi, Te, Ge, Se, In. During the next steps, researchers generated and combined the distribution maps for all these elements, and obtained the epithermal signature, determining the location of such favourable sites.

This detailed inventory provides insights for economic assessment of potential resources and identifies mining sites for the selective by-product potential in Europe. Leveraging historical analytical data and new geological and geo-metallurgical data, the ION4RAW project developed the Decision Support System, an online tool that provides access to information on by-product potential, concentration/tonnage, endowment estimates, and metallurgical techniques.
The outcomes of the research work carried out by BRGM in the framework of the ION4RAW project can be found on the ION4RAW website, but also on the European Commission’s Raw Materials Information System (RMIS), within the public deliverable 2.1, as well as the scientific article “Predictive assessment of metallogenic signature using DataBase Queying (DBQ) method: A European application”.

Sustainability assessment and exploitation

Mathilde Legay from LGI highlighted the significance of recovering by-products both economically and environmentally. She offered a concise overview of the Te, Ag and Bi markets, focusing on their applications, resource availability, demand, and economic projections.

Based on the ION4RAW process at lab scale, Mathilde presented the results of the life cycle assessment (LCA) which listed the environmental burdens, as well as the methodology used strictly on the Cu ore from El Porvenir mine. The results of the LCA for the ION4RAW process at laboratory scale, specifically in reference to the recovery of 1 kg of by-products, indicate environmental challenges. LGI representative emphasised the need for further optimisation of the ION4RAW process, particularly in improving the by-products recoverability and reducing oxidant to mitigate freshwater ecotoxicity and eutrophication.

In discussing potential routes to improve the environmental and economic aspects, Mathilde proposed industrial symbiosis as a viable opportunity to recover tailings from mines, and metals from anode slimes, slags, and flue dust.

Applications of Deep Eutectic Solvents in Metallurgy – Perspectives and Challenges session

The second part of the event gathered esteemed speakers from the research and academic backgrounds, not only with proven expertise in DES, but also with practical examples of successful EU-funded projects. This session was inaugurated by Dipl.-Ing. techn. Katharina Schröder, who presented “Critical raw material recovery: TU Wien’s approach in the PLATIRUS project”. Officially declared a success story by the European Commission in 2022, PLATIRUS developed a business plan based on its novel flowsheet for the recovery of platinum group metals (PGMs) from secondary resources, such as spent autocatalysts. These PGMs recovered from waste, using a combination of innovative technologies (such as microwave assisted leaching, ionic liquid-based liquid-liquid extraction and gas-diffusion electrocrystallisation), can be used to manufacture new autocatalysts with similar or better performance than commercial ones. TU Wien’s role in the project was to develop a leaching process with alternative solvents. The research team investigated various solvents, like ionic liquids (IL), DES, supercritical fluids. Finally, the team at TU Wien pursued further research on PGM leaching with choline-based DES [More information about the results of the research can be found in open access in the scientific paper “Benign recovery of platinum group metals from spent automotive catalysts using choline-based deep eutectic solvents”], Liquid-Liquid separation using DES and IL combined processes, and Solid-Liquid separation. Within the latter process, researchers investigated further the development of selective sorbent materials on solid phase for the recovery of Pt, Pd and Rh under relatively mild conditions and the development of a strategy to separate these materials in an aqueous solution, with the final target to remove all interfering elements and simultaneously reduce the use of IL. The most benign leaching route used a mix of hydrochloric acid (HCl) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), working at 65°C for approx. 3 hours. The Pd-rich leachate was later loaded on the support material developed in the project, under various parameters, with the aim to enhance the retention of target elements. Finally, two consecutive striping steps allowed initially to remove the interfering metals (Al in large quantities), and consequently to separate Pd and Pt from the solid material, to obtain high purities.

The event featured a second success story of: CROCODILE – showcasing innovative metallurgical systems based on advanced technologies for the recovery of cobalt (Co) and the production of Co metal and upstream products from a wide variety of secondary and primary European resources. Introduced by Dr. Lourdes Yurramendi, experienced chemist at TECNALIA, the presentation focused on the chemical treatment, phase that facilitated the pilot scale-up. At lab scale, CROCODILE flowsheet involved the black mass treatment using DES leaching, liquid/liquid extraction using solvometallurgy, and finally electrowinning to achieve the final metallic Co. Dr Yurramendi underlined CROCODILE’s success in employing advanced technologies to optimise Co recovery and metal production, while enhancing sustainability through comprehensive LCA and LCC assessments and efficient resource utilisation:

  • DES recycling was achieved for up to ten cycles
  • Low operation temperatures (up to 55°C) while maintaining high stability
  • Viscosity concerns were addressed by using a DES-based leaching system mixed with water

Based on the breakdown of the operating expenditure (OPEX) at lab scale, 90% of the expenses were allocated to raw materials, with 7% attributed to energy consumption. Additionally, 36% of the raw materials were released to the DES leaching process. During the validation of the pilot at TRL7, a total of 1000 kg black mass containing 25% Co content underwent testing. The daily production yielded over 6 kg Co, with a purity exceeding 97%. Considering the comparatively slower development pace of the recycling industry in contrast to the European battery sector, the DES-based CROCODILE technology stands as a promising route. It offers an opportunity for further optimisation, positioning itself as an encouraging recycling technology on the European market.

Dr Cristina Pozo-Gonzalo, Senior Research Fellow at Carboquímica Institute (Spain) and Associate Editor for Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) Sustainability, presented a balanced perspective on the advantages and challenges on using DES for metal recovery, comparing with existing recovery methodologies, such as pyrometallurgy and hydrometallurgy. Dr. Pozo-Gonzalo outlined the current state-of-the-art (SoA) while providing an overview of the three main phases: a. extraction – usually involving a combination of hydro and solvometallurgy, as well as pyrometallurgy, b. separation – including liquid-liquid extraction, membranes, resins, c. recovery depending on the chemistry of the metals targeted for recovery – usually comprising precipitation, calcination or electrowinning techniques.

Focusing on deep eutectic systems in the solvometallurgy context, Dr. Pozo-Gonzalo highlighted the following general advantages: cost-efficiency, suitability for specific purposes, straightforward preparation (100% atom efficiency), upscaling opportunities. The two key parameters establishing the leaching efficiency are acidity and metal complexation (nature and stability). Using the example of Co recovery, the researcher presented results achieved by utilising a mixture of three different choline chlorides: Ethylene Glycol, Urea and Citric acid – a process with efficiency similar to hydrometallurgy but following a green recovery path. Highlighting good recovery results and selective dissolution options, Dr. Pozo-Gonzalo underlined the necessity to guide research’s interest towards improving specific aspects: the nature and ratio of the hydrogen bond donor (HBD) and hydrogen bond acceptor (HBA), viscosity, reducing ability and experimental factors. Finally, Dr. Pozo-Gonzalo referenced a case study lead in collaboration with TECNALIA, that revealed promising results for Co recovery (notably 78% efficiency with a stable Co deposition process) by electrowinning using DES.

Conclusions emphasised the criticality of tailoring DES composition and working conditions (thermal, chemical, electrochemical) for each metal. Emphasising early stages of the research on DES, she recommended continuous scientific investigation to gain understanding on the structure, the additives’ effect and DES degradation, with the aim to work towards sustainability.

Prof. Dr. Gero Frisch, from the TU Bergakademie Freiberg, concluded the workshop with a clear message: a return to fundamental research is essential to precisely understand DES applicability at industrial scale. He highlighted examples of success stories in electroplating but also from the raw materials sector, citing positive results with the leaching of flue dust, yielding a solution rich in In and Sn, after subsequent precipitation steps. Notably, he emphasised the key strengths of Il/DES, referring here to their capacity for tailoring speciation and controlling chemical, such as in the case of Cu.

Within the ION4RAW project, TU Freiberg research team conducted tests on the Scotgold mine concentrate using different media and exploring solubility curves and efficiency of DES, particularly in comparison to aqueous solutions; this revealed promising results and, in some cases, even better selectivity.

DES have been research subject for almost two decades, yet certain challenges such as conductivity, viscosity, price, ecotoxicity and high solubility for metal salts still persist. While acknowledging current capabilities and research areas prepared to comprehensively explore and provide engineering support for upscaling projects, Prof. Frisch reiterated the cruciality of allocating more research on DES before we reach the irrefutable conclusion that this solution is no longer viable on an industrial scale. He advocated for collaboration with industry, not solely for upscaling purposes, but also to leverage their expertise in understanding fundamentals, promoting a sustainable long-term approach.

Asked about the limiting factors of DES that seem to discourage industry from pursuing upscaling, experts provided insightful answers, referring to the necessity to facilitate industry driven research, aligned with ESG standards. Funding directed towards technology foundations and promotion of ongoing knowledge exchange between research and industry were also highlighted as essential. While acknowledging criticisms of DES, experts underlined their proven efficiency over time, stressing the necessity for continued research and knowledge exchange between sectors for DES to mature into a viable industrial solution.

The event gathered online over 45 participants, with attendance predominantly from the research background (over 70%), followed by consultancy (25%), and only 2,2% from industry, respectively non-profit sectors.

By Products Critical Raw Materials Mineral Processing Technology Mining Raw Materials Sustainable Ionometallurgy

Exploring Sustainable Metal Electrodeposition: ION4RAW Partner at ECS Conference

ION4RAW Partner Gøril Jahrsengene from SINTEF, attended the ECS Conference in Gothenburg last month. This global event drew a remarkable 3,200 attendees and featured a diverse program of 2,427 talks and 1,381 student abstracts. Gøril Jahrsengene made a noteworthy contribution with her presentation titled “Electrochemical Investigations of Ag and Bi in Choline Chloride-Ethylene Glycol DES Electrolyte.”

Her presentation was part of the “Metal Electrodeposition from Fundamentals to Applications” symposium, in the session “Beyond Water.” To explore further details of her work, you can access the abstract and additional information on the ECS Conference website.

Our partner’s active participation at this event reflects the ION4RAW project’s commitment to advancing knowledge and promoting collaboration in the field of raw materials research. Stay tuned for more updates on our ongoing efforts to change the industry.

By Products Critical Raw Materials Mineral Processing Technology Mining Raw Materials Sustainable Ionometallurgy

Discover The Work ION4RAW: Up-scaling and demo validation

The ION4RAW project funded by the European Union is investigating innovative recovery processes of metals from different kinds of minerals. The metals of interest are so called “critical raw materials” (CRM) which are globally uneven distributed and mostly imported into the EU. To exploit deposits located within the EU and recover those metals form already processed minerals the ION4RAW project uses deep eutectic solvents (DES) to leach the metals out of ores and minerals. DES are new and environmentally friendly leaching agents made up of organic compounds in contrast to classic water-based leaching agents like acids and bases.

During work package 6 of the ION4RAW project partners from Germany, Italy, Norway and Spain teamed up to transfer the ION4RAW process established in the lab scale to be performed in a pilot plant build, operated and validated at tecnalia research & innovation facilities in Spain. TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Germany, investigated the up-scaling of the process to the medium scale prior to setting up the pilot plant which will be able to process up to 100 L. Working in a jacketed glass reactor of 15 L, displayed in figure 1, suited for that kind of leaching experiments the researchers were able validate the parameters for the process and maintain a high recovery rate of the metals.

Figure 1: Jacketed glass reactor with DES left and during the metal leaching right.

SINTEF in Norway analysed the deposition of the leached metals in solution by applying electrical current for the recovery of pure metals. The Italian partners of RINA Consulting Centro Sviluppo Materiali will evaluate the metals produced during the process in regard to purity and use in commercial products. In the end of the ION4RAW process and products will be validated and evaluated by IDENER in Spain.



Researchers found out that the ION4RAW process can be carried out in a higher processing rate suitable to be performed in early industry applications. Metals of interest like antimony, bismuth or tellurium all of which are important for high-technology products are recovered in high rates from the starting material.

The greatest challenge faced during the up-scaling process was to dissipate the heat produced during leaching. This challenge arises from the different ratios in which volume and surface area change during scale-up. The processed amount of material is in contact with a much lower surface area in large equipment in respect to small lab scale experiments. Therefore, the heat produced can´t be dissipated in such good ways which makes utilisation of sophisticated cooling equipment and agents essential for successful metal recovery.

In the future the ION4RAW process will be applied to other minerals and secondary raw materials like slags from metal production to increase possible application fields of this innovative process. The process should be further optimised and adapted that a broad variety of metals can be recovered and used for production which are currently not recovered for different kinds of mineral deposits and are lost to tailings or landfill. In this way the ION4RAW project will contribute to more environmentally friendly and holistic recovery of metals that are of high importance for industries, consumers and the society in general alike.

In order to develop and evaluate the ION4RAW process on samples from different kind of resources typology and respective mineralogy, five ore deposits were selected and sampled with help of the mining operators: Cobre Las Cruces and El Valle Boinás ore deposits in Spain, Cononish gold mine which is the only active gold mine in Scotland, Cerro Lindo and El Porvenir ore deposits in Peru. Between 300 kg and 7 tons of each bulk ore, totalizing 22.7 tons of material, were sampled during the first year of the project and distributed to ION4RAW partners. Sub-sampling and pre-treatment of the samples for the lab analyses are described in a public report[3].

Author: Ben Ebersbach

By Products Critical Raw Materials Mineral Processing Technology Mining Raw Materials Sustainable Ionometallurgy

Discover The Work ION4RAW: A Focus On By-Products Potential Evaluation

WP2 is entitled « By-products potential evaluation » and involved 6 partners of the ION4RAW project and 3 mining operators. It aimed at displaying an extensive and comprehensive evaluation of by-products potential – Bi, Co, Ge, In, Mo, Pt, Re, Sb, Se, Te,  – in Au-Ag, Cu and Cu-Au deposits. Most of these by-product elements belong to the 2020 EU Critical Raw Materials List. Very little data exist about their possible recovery because exploitation and exploration projects mainly focus on the main commodities for economic evaluation.

Location of most favorable areas for epithermal deposits in Europe with higher statistical potential to have enrichment in Sb, Bi, Te, Ge, Se and In (kernel density map)

The first task of WP2 was to produce a geographically-based compilation of the selected by-products occurrences and their relative potential in known European occurrences. The DataBase Querying (DBQ) approach was applied on the historical European Promine dataset. Several areas of great interest for prospection of the targeted by-products of the various mining projects and geological entities were determined. It allows potential identification of commodities, which are either rarely reported in analyses or through divers permit/deposit reports by mining companies. This work may encourage mining operators to search for these rare elements in their deposits / prospects which are located in high potential areas, whereas they are not currently researched. The results are described in detail in a public report[1] and published in a scientific article[2]. They also served as inputs for WP8 to create the Decision Support System.

In order to develop and evaluate the ION4RAW process on samples from different kind of resources typology and respective mineralogy, five ore deposits were selected and sampled with help of the mining operators: Cobre Las Cruces and El Valle Boinás ore deposits in Spain, Cononish gold mine which is the only active gold mine in Scotland, Cerro Lindo and El Porvenir ore deposits in Peru. Between 300 kg and 7 tons of each bulk ore, totalizing 22.7 tons of material, were sampled during the first year of the project and distributed to ION4RAW partners. Sub-sampling and pre-treatment of the samples for the lab analyses are described in a public report[3].

This Back-scattered electron (BSE) image gives evidence of molybdenite (Mo) grains associated with apatite (Apa) in the garnet (Grt) gangue.

After that, a comprehensive characterisation of the ores was necessary to assist the other WP in understanding the link between the ore mineral composition and the potential metal recovery at each step of the ore processing, and optimize process yield. The challenge was to detect and quantify the targeted by-products as they are distributed in highly disseminated trace minerals and in low concentrations among the main ore minerals compared to the main commodities.

Geochemical and mineralogical characterization of the ore samples was performed using multi-scale characterization techniques: whole rock chemistry, X-Ray Diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and automated mineralogy techniques), micro-X-Ray fluorescence, electron probe microanalyses (EPMA), laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS). Quantifying all the chemical elements (major, minor and traces) within various ore matrix (massive sulphidic ores or within silicate and carbonate gangue minerals ) is not possible with one single method. Thus, several methods have been applied and adapted to each specific ore-rock samples and respective metal contents and detection limits, depending on the research targeted element, their relative concentrations and their ability to recover them from the solid or solution with the various lab apparatus. The full characterization of each ore sample is described in a confidential report[4], restricted to project partners and the mining operators for strategic and economic reasons.

Micrographs in reflected light of the main galena (Gn)-pyrite (Py)-chalcopyrite (Cpy)-sphalerite (Sph)  ore assemblage with late marcasite replacing garnet. Chalcopyrite essentially occurs as inclusions in sphalerite.

Geochemical and mineralogical characterization served as input for the Life Cycle assessment (WP7). Moreover, the amenability to recover by-products from mineral processing was determined by automated quantitative microscopy analyses using Qemscan and TIMA-X scanning electron microscopic systems. These techniques are applied regularly in the mining industry to quantify the mineralogy of the ore feed and products and it allows understanding the comprehensive deportment of the minerals hosting the targeted by-products. The mineralogical deportment of by-product was statistically analysed as mineral associations, respective form and particle-size distribution of by-product bearing species and assessment of their potential liberation during mineral processing. The results obtained within this task are presented as well in a confidential report[5].

This BSE image shows a pyrite grain where laser ablation was carried out: the holes represent the laser impacts with quite regular morphologies.

Results obtained by WP2 first give to the main stakeholders the areas of interest regarding the targeted by-products. Furthermore, they provide support for the processing industry through assessing the mineralogical deportment of by-products in deferent kind of ores. The methodology applied may be useful to qualify the efficiency of the mineral pre-treatment and will help to predict the potential recovery after hydrometallurgy and DES assays  by comparing the initial ore solid composition with the concentrates and waste compositions after extraction for example or at the successive steps of the process.

[1] Gourcerol B., Bertrand G., Bailly L., Moreau P., Duhamel-Achin I., Négrel P., Warscheid W. (2020), Mapping of by-product potential in mineral deposits – D2.1 ION4RAW H2020 project Grant 815748

[2] Gourcerol B., Bertrand G., Bailly L., Moreau P., Duhamel-Achin I., Picault M., Négrel P. (2022) Predictive assessment of metallogenic signatures using the DataBase Querying (DBQ) method : A European application – Journal of Geochemical Exploration 236

[3] Moreau P., Gourcerol B., Duhamel-Achin I., Delchini S., Négrel P., Warscheid W., Sangster C., Sánchez Ruiz F., Álvarez Cifuentes R., (2020) Technical note and methodology guide for sampling and sample preparation – D2.2 ION4RAW H2020 project Grant 815748

[4] Moreau P., Lerouge C., Bailly L., Gourcerol B., Duhamel-Achin I., Maubec N., Wille G., Lach P., Sangster C., Warscheid W., Álvarez Cifuentes R., Sánchez Ruiz F. (2022) – Chemical and mineralogical characterisation of by- product in target ores – D2.3 ION4RAW H2020 project Grant 815748

[5] Moreau P., Duhamel-Achin I., Bodenan F., Lerouge C. (2023) – Assessment of by- product endowment and metallurgical availability – D2.4 ION4RAW H2020 project Grant 815748

Author: Pauline Moreau

By Products Critical Raw Materials Mineral Processing Technology Mining Raw Materials Sustainable Ionometallurgy

Exploring Sustainable Mineral Extraction: Insights from the first in person ION4RAW Consortium meeting.

The ION4RAW consortium recently convened in Freiberg, Germany, for their first in-person meeting, marking an important step towards a more sustainable future. This gathering brought together experts and researchers committed to shifting mineral extraction practices and promoting the responsible use of raw materials.

During the three productive days, the consortium members engaged in fruitful discussions, sharing valuable insights and updates on the progress of their work packages. This in person meeting allowed for fruitful discussions and research collaborations, enabling the exchange of ideas and the alignment of efforts towards the project’s common goals.

The highlight of the meeting was the consortium’s visit to Freiberg’s metal mine, an enlightening experience that showcased the innovative practices employed for mineral extraction, the ongoing experiments conducted on-site, and the range of metals being extracted. Witnessing the operations first-hand underscored the significance of responsible mining and the crucial role it plays in achieving a greener and more environmentally conscious future.

The ION4RAW project recognizes the pressing need for a paradigm shift in mineral extraction, aiming to develop innovative techniques that reduce environmental impact while ensuring the efficient utilization of raw materials. By combining expertise from various fields, the consortium strives to unlock new possibilities and drive the transition towards a more sustainable and resource-efficient society. Through ongoing research, development, and collaboration, the ION4RAW consortium seeks to pioneer breakthrough solutions that will help preserve our planet’s precious resources for generations to come.

The TU Freiberg International Centre deserves special recognition for hosting the consortium and providing an ideal platform for knowledge exchange and collaboration.

As the project continues to make significant strides towards sustainable mineral extraction, stay tuned for more updates on the work being done by the ION4RAW consortium.

Mineral Processing Technology

ION4RAW presented at the Reactive Metals Workshop at MIT

Since 2006, a workshop on reactive metals processing, most often called Reactive Metals Workshop, or RMW, has been organized yearly by collaboration between universities in the US, mainly Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), and universities in Japan, primarily the Institute of Industrial Science (IIS) at the University of Tokyo. After a break due to the pandemic, many signed up for the first workshop since 2020, the 16th ever RMW, and about 60 participants accepted the invitation to attend and found their way to MIT March 24-25, 2023.

During the two-day workshop, eight invited speakers from universities in Japan, USA, Norway and Iceland took to the floor on subjects like novel type batteries, metal production, processing and recycling. Lively discussions on the subjects continued between all participants after each presentation, in the breaks, and during the poster session. In attendance were mainly researchers, professors and graduate students from the scientific community, while some with an industrial background also attended.

Picture 1. Attendes at RMW16.

main event during RMW is the poster session. During this time, everyone attending is given a chance to contribute to the event by presenting their work. First, everyone is given the opportunity to have a short 3-minute pitch in front of everyone, to present their research and give a reason for continued elaboration and discussion during the active poster session. During the poster session everyone, also the attendees presenting posters, are allowed to walk around and speak to each other regarding the research presented. A total of 18 posters were presented at RMW16.

ION4RAW was presented in the workshop with participation from SINTEF. SINTEF has during the project worked with electrochemical recovery of the targeted metals through electrochemical deposition, and participated with a poster titled: “Electrochemical Recovery of Au and Ag from Ore Deposits using Innovative Deep Eutectic Solvent Ionic Liquids”.

Picture 2. Gøril Jahrsengene(SINTEF) presentation

Picture 3. Gøril (SINTEF) in front of her poster.

The poster covered results regarding electrochemical characterization of the suggested electrochemical systems focusing on targeted elements, Au and Ag, as well Cu and Fe that is also going to be present in the electrolyte in the ION4RAW process. During the 3-minute pitch, SINTEF also showed a picture of a wire completely covered in what visually appeared to be gold, obtained after an experiment using an electrolyte where mine waste had been leached. Ending the pitch with an open question regarding this deposit: “Is it really gold and were we able to recover it electrochemically?”, made sure many of the participants stopped at the poster afterwards, to discuss the results, the ION4RAW process, and general use of DES in metal recovery.

Besides the main event of the poster session, the workshop is viewed as an excellent opportunity to network. Allowing for frequent and informal breaks throughout both days, an evening banquet with pre-drinks networking in the evening, and a lab tour in the MIT labs and buildings (ending in the famous library dome), it was a great opportunity to present the ION4RAW project, results from the electrochemical recovery task, and network on this and possible new projects.

Picture 4. Recovered Au and Ag.

Mineral Processing Technology

TARANTULA Clustering Event: Conclusions on Social License to Operate in the Mining and Life Cycle Assessment Methodologies for (re)processing of low-grade primary and secondary resources

The mining sector is unquestionably crucial for Europe’s economic growth and the development of various industries, including green and digital technologies. However, as emphasised at the end of the event by Prof. Juan Maria Menendez Aguado from University de Oviedo Mining and Minerals Engineering, mining activities are often associated with environmental and social challenges, leading to conflicts with local communities, and potentially jeopardising the Social License to Operate (SLO). Despite Europe’s high environmental standards for raw material production, the harvesting of primary and secondary resources of critical raw materials (CRMs) is imminent and requires regaining the trust of European citizens and policymakers.

Insights and Highlights from the Panel Discussions and Roundtables

On 19 April, the International Centre for Advanced Materials and Raw Materials (ICAMCyl) organised a cluster event on behalf of the TARANTULA EU-funded project which is expected to reach its final stages in November 2023. The workshop brought together mining projects and companies, and included two panel discussions and a round table that highlighted various aspects of SLO methodologies and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in the mining sector. The event took a holistic approach to modern mining processes, providing insights on more than just technical aspects relevant to SLO and LCA. Discussions emphasised the importance of implementing sustainable and responsible mining practices that balance economic, social, and environmental concerns. Additionally, there was emphasis on the importance of engaging with local communities and governments to build trust and support for mining activities.

ION4RAW, represented by Mathilde Legay (LGI), participated in the roundtable discussing how EU-funded projects are tackling the SLO aspect during the development phase, but also in the panel discussion focusing on the LCA methodology and the impact categories, such as climate change, metal depletion, freshwater ecotoxicity and eutrophication, and human toxicity.

The Technological Park of Leon (ESP) hosted the event, which provided an opportune context to share the results of a study conducted within one of ION4RAW’s sister-project’s – BIORECOVER. The study carried out by ENSO and LGI revealed the social perception of the mining sector in Spain, France and Greece and the need to educate people about the importance of mining activities. Despite certain concerns, around 50% of the interviewed participants were in favour of opening more mines in Spain to reduce the global environmental impacts, improve working conditions for miners, and create more job opportunities for various regions. The study was complemented by a detailed presentation of the public awareness campaign run by ION4RAW, which aims to communicate about the use of raw materials in daily life and showcase the essential usage of CRMs in key sectors. LGI initiated an  awareness campaign, including impactful attractive visuals, animated videos, social media cards, followed by quizzes and online contests, which was well-received by the European Commission’s reviewers, but also by the project’s online communities.

During the latter part of the event, ION4RAW presented the initial findings and hypotheses derived from applying the LCA methodology in the project. The focus was on assessing the environmental impact of using Deep Eutectic Solvents (DES) in ION4RAW, with preliminary results indicating that the synthesis of DES and the concentration of additives are associated with the climate change and freshwater ecotoxicity impacts.

The EU projects TARANTULA, ION4RAW, MADITRACE, S34I and PASSENGER presented their findings, which were complemented by  two presentations from leading mining companies in Europe – operating the Penouta Sn, Ta and Nb mine (ESP), respectively the Barruecopardo Mine (ESP). The companies presented key aspects that contribute to a positive SLO, emphasizing the importance of restoring the environment, improving the economic situation of the mining area and the surrounding areas, creating employment opportunities, and providing training to local communities.

The Workshop in Figures

The cluster event organised by the TARANTULA project attracted a diverse range of stakeholders, including research institutions (62%), mining and manufacturing companies (23.81%), consultancy firms (9.52%), and trade unions (4.76%). The event had an audience of nearly 25 participants from different countries, with most attendees being from Spain, followed by Belgium, France, Italy, Germany, and Austria.

In conclusion, the TARANTULA clustering event was a valuable platform for sharing insights and experiences, and it highlighted the essential role of the mining sector in the development of various industries. It is crucial to ensure that mining activities are carried out sustainably and with the support of local communities and the public.

Mineral Processing Technology

Recovering critical raw materials

Minerals such as antimony, germanium, and indium play an integral role in many modern technologies and devices. These critical raw materials are essential components in everything from smartphones to solar panels, and demand for them is only increasing. However, traditional mining and extraction methods can have significant environmental impacts, making it increasingly important to develop sustainable and responsible approaches to raw materials production.

This is where the ION4RAW project comes in. The project is focused on developing new, more sustainable methods to recover critical raw materials and metals from mining sites. Led by coordinator Maria Tripiana, the team is working to identify and optimize environmentally-friendly approaches that minimize waste and reduce the use of harmful chemicals.

Excitingly, the ION4RAW project has just been featured in the latest issue of the EU Research magazine. Readers can learn more about the project’s innovative approach to raw materials production by checking out pages 52, 53, and 80 of the magazine.

Have a look at our piece in the magazine below!

Critical Raw Materials Mining Raw Materials

A look back: ION4RAW’s Participation in the Biorecover Seminar Series

In March 2023, the H2020 BIORECOVER project organized an online seminar series in collaboration with several European projects, including ION4RAW, EIS, AfricaMaVal, and SCRREEN2. The seminars delved into the pressing issue of raw materials and their pivotal role in the global energy transition, which poses significant challenges to our world today.

Europe’s heavy reliance on raw materials for its growth, competitiveness, and transition to a greener economy makes it imperative to establish and maintain sustainable supply chains for raw materials. However, the current scale of unlocking unexploited ore reserves falls short of meeting the demand. Therefore, innovative and transformative strategies are needed to develop environmentally and socially sustainable raw material value chains that align with Europe’s climate, security, and economic ambitions.

The webinar series comprised of three seminars, each addressing a distinct aspect of raw materials sustainability. The first seminar on “Establishing responsible global partnerships” took place on 7th March 2023. It was followed by a second webinar focused on “Improving the sustainability of critical raw materials extraction” on 9th March 2023. Finally, the last webinar on “Researching unexploited European reserves” took place on 15th March 2023. ION4RAW took part in both the second and final webinar which provided a platform for leading experts to share their experiences and insights, shedding light on the opportunities and challenges in developing sustainable raw material value chains.

The ION4RAW project is proud to have been part of this important seminar series and looks forward to continuing collaboration with other projects and stakeholders to drive positive change in the raw materials sector.

Mineral Processing Technology

The Effect of Macroscopic Particle Features on Mineral Dissolution

New publication by ION4RAW authors Chandra Widyananda Winardhi, Jose Ricardo da Assuncao Godinho and Jens Gutzmer (HZDR). Discover the article in detail with a focus on mineral dissolution. 

Mineral dissolution is a dynamic process in which kinetics depend on the reactive surface area, orientation, and geometry of the dissolving mineral grain. Dissolution rate is, thus, not represented by a single value, but rather, by a spectrum that is affected by the reactivity of different types of surface features.

Such dissolution rate spectra are usually obtained by very detailed studies of perfectly cleaved surfaces by atomic force microscopy or in situ studies, such as flow-through experiments. This study visualizes dissolution progress by repeated X-ray computed tomography scans of a single particle. This allows studying the influence of larger particle features, such as corners and edges, at the interception of macroscopic faces of particles, as well as the influence of those macroscopic features on the dissolution rate spectra. As a suitable case study, the dissolution of a monomineralic galena (PbS) particle in ethaline is studied.

The observed changes in particle geometry are evaluated using a newly developed empirical model in order to break down the rate spectra as a function of the particle geometry. Results illustrate that dissolution rates are exponentially correlated with the distance to crystal corners and edges. The reactivity map generated from these exponential relations shows a linear trendline with the dissolution rates over the entire surface of the studied galena particle.

The empirical reactivity map developed here opens the possibility of predicting the dissolution rate of particulate materials based on computed tomography and the optimal geometrical properties of the particles that maximize the dissolution, e.g., size and shape.

Posts navigation